The statistics of the Vietnam Center for Environmental Monitoring have shown that the concentration of fine dust pm2.5 and fine dust pm1.0 in the air in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City is at an alarming level, exceeding the standard threshold. standards of the World Health Organization (WHO) and has the potential to directly affect human health.
1. What is pm2.5 fine dust?
Dust is a noun that refers to a complex mixture of inorganic and organic particles in liquid or solid form, capable of being suspended in the air. Dust or compounds present in dust are collectively known as Particulate Matter, symbol pm.
Surely many people have never heard and do not know What is pm2.5 fine dust?How does it affect health? To explain this problem, experts define pm2.5 fine dust as tiny dust particles in the air with a size of 2.5 microns or less (compared to a human hair, it is about 30 times smaller than a human hair). ). PM2.5 fine dust is formed from substances such as nitrogen, carbon and other metal compounds.
When the concentration fine dust pm2.5 in the outdoor air increases will cause the air to be dimmed and the visibility will be reduced to look like fog. PM2.5 fine dust can easily enter the human body through the respiratory tract and cause a number of dangerous diseases such as: strokePeople who are often exposed to fine dust may experience health problems such as sneezing, runny nose, shortness of breath, dry eyes, etc. rate of decreased lung function, Chronic bronchitis and increased mortality due to lung cancer and heart disease in patients. According to statistics, every year, fine dust pm2.5 can increase by 10μg/m3, which means that the number of emergency patients with high blood pressure will increase by 8% and cardiovascular diseases will also increase significantly.
In addition to the dangers mentioned above fine dust pm2.5 Also known as the killer that can promote, accelerate the progression of cirrhosis and increase the risk of metabolic disease and liver dysfunction, contribute to the development of liver cirrhosis. diabetes.
2. What is PM 1.0 fine dust?
To put it simply fine dust pm 1.0 are liquid or solid particles floating in the air. The word PM stands for the English word - Particulate Matter, which means granular substance (solid or liquid). Index 1.0 is the size index of particles less than or equal to 1 micrometer in diameter. Fine dust pm 1.0 (under 1 μm) has appeared in our country for the past few years, especially on days when the temperature is low or the air is dry.
In addition to the ability to cause respiratory diseases, fine dust pm 1.0 can also attack the alveoli, pass through the gas-blood septum of the patient to enter the circulatory system and cause disease, can even affect the nervous system and affect the structure of DNA. , causing psychological illness and serious memory loss for patients.
3. Fine dust pm2.5 and pm 1.0 cause unpredictable harm
Research by the International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC and the World Health Organization WHO has shown a consensus correlation between the level of air pollution with cancer incidence in recent years. Specifically, if the density of fine dust pm 1.0 in the air increases to 10 μg/m3, the cancer rate will also increase by 22%, and the density of pm2.5 fine dust increases by 10 μg/m3, the lung cancer rate will increased to 36%.
fine dust pm2.5 and pm 1.0 penetrates into the human body through the respiratory system when people breathe, depending on the size of the dust particles, the level of penetration will be different. While fine dust pm 1.0 enters the body through the airways and accumulates on the lungs, fine dust pm2.5 is more dangerous because they can wriggle into the lungs, pulmonary veins and enter the system. the patient's blood circulation.
The human body has an accumulation of fine dust pm2.5 and fine dust pm 1.0 In the long term, it will increase the risk of developing diseases in the cardiovascular, respiratory, circulatory and reproductive systems.
Harm of reusing medical masks?
4. How does fine dust pm2.5 and pm 1.0 in Vietnam form?
The path of formation and birth pm 2.5 and fine dust pm 1.0 In big cities, almost all of them come from construction works, traffic emissions, industrial plants, etc.
According to data published at the workshop "Air pollution - Threats to public health" from 2017, the amount of fine dust pm 2.5 2016 average in HCMC is 28.23 μg/m3 (3 times higher than WHO standards), and in Hanoi is 50.5 μg/m3 (2 times higher than national standards and 5 times higher than the national standard). times the WHO mean). Air pollution warning level in Hanoi is second only to India's capital New Delhi (where air pollution is the second heaviest in the world with 124 μg/m3).
5. How to protect your health when the air is polluted
To be able to protect the health of yourself and your family from the relationship between Air pollution and increased cancer The first thing to do is to radically reduce the sources of dust generation and dispersal. At the same time, prioritizing the use of transport means with environmentally friendly fuels.
At the same time, it is necessary to green the living environment and raise the awareness of environmental protection in each person and community. If it is not necessary, stay away from the sources air pollutionWhen going out, wear a mask.
In addition, it is also necessary to improve the immune system by planning a meal plan with a diet rich in nutrients, green vegetables, fruits rich in vitamins, etc. to help form and maintain the mucous membrane in the respiratory tract. respiratory and digestive tract, helping the body to fight cell damage, increase oxygen supply to cells.